JAMB Free Tutorial On Word Stress In English (ENGLISH Tutorial).
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JAMB Free Tutorial On Word Stress
STRESS IN ENGLISH
Stress phonetically is an extra force used when pronouncing a particular word or syllable uttered with greater energy or emphasis and consequently louder and stronger.
Those that require greater energy are said to be stressed and those that do not require such force are said to be unstressed.
The unstressed syllables are usually found with weak vowels – /I/ , /U/ … While stressed syllables carry long vowels /a:/ , /3:/ , /I/ , and diphthongs – /ei/ , /au/ , /ai/ ..
The methods of indicating stress include underlining, placement of a stroke before the stressed syllable, and capitalization. Capitalization is the most used method, it is used for the W.A.S.S.C Examination
Example of Capitalization letters
Example of Underlining Method
Example of stroke Method
WORD STRESS CLASSIFICATION
Words are generally classified according to the number of syllables they are made of.
We’ve 3 types of syllable
- Disyllabic and
- Polysyllabic words.
a. Monosyllabic words: They are words with only one syllable pronounced at a breath. They’re simple and short forms of words, it does take stress at the first syllable.
Examples: FAT, MAKE, LIP, or SPRAY.
b. DISYLLABIC WORDS :
These are words with two or double syllables. If a word two syllables, the first syllable is a prefix, the second syllable attracts the stress while the first syllable is unstressed.
Examples; stress on the first syllable :
MAdam, MOther, LAzy, CLEver, GOvern, CHARger.
Example Stress On Second Syllable (Prefix) :
conDEMN , unKNOWN , preDATE , aDDICT , unLOCK , aSLEEP .
Prefix are morphemes added before a root word or base word to derive a new meaning – un, in, il, no, pre, pro, re, auto, post, neo.
c . POLYSYLLABIC WORDS :
These are words made up of three or more syllables.
Note: That generally, words of three or more syllables have their stress on the third syllable from the end of the word. Prefixes and suffixes are usually not stressed.
RULES ON STRESS OF POLYSYLLABIC WORDS :
RULE 1 :
Stress the first syllable (1st Syllable ) from the back or end of a word whenever any of the following inflection is seen :
Examples : enterTAIN , interRUPT ,decomPOSE, introDUCE , misunderSTAND chaLLENGE …
Stress the second syllable from the back or end of a word ends in the following: sion, tion, sure, ture, ing, Ed, ede, ege, ade, ere, ent, Ade, or, er, ICS, ic, tial, cial, ian, IOUs …
Examples : compenSAtion , matheMAtics , converSAtion , eduCAtion , adVENture , adMIssion , adMIXture , carPENting poliTIcian..
Stress the 3rd syllable from the end or back of a word which ends in the following : lly,cy,phy,ky,Dy,ty …. rural,tive,al, less,ous,ible,sm,Kent,itude,al,phone,ult,ible ,full,ness
satisFACtory, inforMAlity, BEtterment, fanTAStical, conSERvative, SPEctacle, MAgnitude …. and the likes …
Compound words are made up of two or more words hyphenated or unhyphenated.
a. Generally, the stress is on the first word: GAScooker, TAPErecorder, HEADache, …
b . The stress however can be on the second part of the compound word in (1) Adjectives (2) Number (3)Food and Menu (4)Compass Points.
Adjectives: first-CLASS, forty- ONE.
FOOD AND MENU: toast-BREAD, peppered-SOUP …
compass Points: south-WEST, north-EAST, north-WEST, south-WEST …
C. Sometimes, a compound word may have a special meaning quite different from the literal meaning of the individual words. In this regard, the first word is stressed.
Example: BLACKleg, WHITEhouse, BLACKmail, BLACKberry, LAPtop.
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